Gathering Dandelions: Celebration plus Recipe

“You EAT them?” a little boy new to the neighborhood asks. He leans forward for the answer, his face ready to constrict in doubt.

Children already well acquainted with our family’s springtime ritual stop picking.

“Yeah!” they eagerly assure him, “They’re really good.”

They aren’t referring to a new vegetable in our garden. They’re talking about dandelions.

Herbalists tell us exactly what we need grows nearby. Those plants we call “weeds” may in fact remedy what ails us. They are so common that their properties are easily overlooked in a culture searching for packaged wellness. Plantain, mullein, comfrey,mint, mugwort,St. John’s wort, chicory, and purslane spring up wild in our untreated lawn and gardens. Weeds, but also powerful healers.

Today we’re picking dandelions in full flower. It isn’t about finding a remedy. For me the harvest is has to do with celebrating spring and affirming the beauty around us. For my children and our neighbors it’s about fun. I wait until the blooms are at their peak. Then I call friends and neighbors to announce, “Today is the day!”

Children spread out across the yard holding little baskets. A girl squats in front of each plant, pausing a long moment before she reaches out to pluck a flower from its stem. The  oldest boy in the group walks by many dandelion plants to pick only those growing in clusters. And the newest little boy falls silent, as the rest of the children do, taking delight in the seriousness of the harvest.

European settlers brought the dandelion plant to this continent for food and medicinal purposes. The perennial spread easily across most states. It’s a testament to the power of herbicide marketers that such a useful plant became so thoroughly despised. Standing under today’s blue sky, I look at exuberant yellow rosettes growing in bright green grass and feel sheer aesthetic pleasure.

After the children tire of picking we sit together on the porch and snip off the dandelion stems right up to the flower. We mothers look over their busy heads—blonde, brown, black—and smile as we watch them stay at this task with the kind of close attention children give to real work. One girl remarks that the flowers look like the sun. Another child says her grandmother told her that in the Old Country they call the plant by the same name as milk because of its white sap. The newest boy chooses to line the stems neatly along the wide porch planking, arranging and rearranging them by length.

Every aspect of a ritual holds significance so I pay attention to the warm breeze, the comfortable pulse of friendship, and flowers so soft against my fingers they remind me of a newborn’s hair.

When we’re done the flowers are rinsed in a colander, then it’s time to cook them. I’m not a fan of frying. There are better ways to preserve the flavor and nutrients in food. Consequently I’m not very skilled. But this is easy. The children, their mothers and I drop the flowers in a thin batter, scoop them out with slotted spoons and fry them a dozen at a time in shallow pans.

After the blossoms cool slightly on paper towels they’re put on two platters. One is tossed with powdered sugar and cinnamon, the other sprinkled with salt and pepper. Handfuls are eaten in the kitchen while we cook. Then we carry the platters outside. Children run off to play in grass polka-dotted with bright yellow flowers. We adults sit on the porch laughing and talking.

It’s suggested that we should be eating healthfully prepared dandelion greens and roots rather than indulging in delectable fried blossoms. That sentence fades into a quiet moment as a breeze stirs new leaves on the trees and lifts our children’s hair. I feel enlivened. Everywhere, around me and inside me, it is spring.

Flower Power Recipe

Gather dandelion flowers from areas free of chemical treatments or fertilizer. Pick in a sunny part of the day so the flowers are fully open, then prepare right away so flowers don’t close.

Cut away stem, as this is bitter, leaving only the green part holding the flower together.

Douse briefly in salt water (to flush out any lurking bugs). Dry flowers on dish towels while you prepare batter.

Ingredients

3 to 4 cups dandelion flowers, prepared as above

1 cup milk (dairy, soy, almond, coconut, any variety)

1 egg (or equivalent egg replacer product)

1 cup flour (slightly smaller amount of any whole grain alternative)

½ teaspoon salt

oil (frying is best with healthful oils which don’t break down at high temperatures, try safflower oil, coconut oil or olive oil)

Method

1. Combine milk, egg, flour and salt in wide bowl. Mix well. Heat a few inches of oil in skillet (350-375 degrees).

2.  Drop a dozen or so blossoms into the batter, stir gently to coat. Lift out with slotted spoon or fork. It’s best to hold the bowl over the skillet as you drop each blossom into the hot oil.

3. Turn flowers over to brown on both sides. Remove with slotted spatula to drain briefly on towels. Continue to fry remaining flowers using same steps. Toss cooked dandelions with sugar and cinnamon. Or toss with salt and your choice of savory flavoring such as garlic, pepper, or chili powder.

4. Making flower fritters is a speedier method than frying individual flowers. Simply drop flowers and batter into the oil by the spoonful, then turn like a pancake. Serve with jam, maple syrup or honey. Or try savory toppings like mustard, ketchup or barbecue sauce. These fritters are endlessly adaptable. Try adding sunflower or sesame seeds to the batter and serve with either the sweet or savory toppings.

What You May Not Know About Dandelions

The common dandelion, Taraxacum officinalhas been used in traditional medical systems around the world to boost nutrition as well as treat conditions of the liver, kidney and spleen; slow abnormal growths; improve digestion and more. Recently science has taken a closer look at this often scorned plant. No surprise, traditional wisdom holds up under scrutiny.

~Dandelion root stimulates the growth of 14 strains of bifidobacteria. This is good news, because bifidobacteria aid in digestion. Their presence in the gut is correlated with a lower incidence of allergies.

~Dandelions appear to fight cancer. Researchers testing for biologically active components to combat cancer proliferation and invasion note that dandelion extracts have value as “novel anti-cancer agent[s].” Their studies show dandelion leaf extract decreases growth of certain breast cancer cells and blocks invasion of prostate cancer. The root extract blocks invasion of other specific breast cancer cells  and also shows promise inhibiting skin cancer.

~Dandelions work as an anti-inflammatory and pain relieving agent.

~Dandelion extract lowers cholesterol. This, plus its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities leads some researchers to believe that the plant may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

~The plant’s leaves are an effective diuretic.

~Dandelion shows promise in diabetic treatment. It slows the glycemic response to carbohydrates, thereby helping to control blood sugar.

~Dandelion extract increases the action of estrogen and progesterone receptors. It may prove to be a useful treatment for reproductive hormone-related problems including PMS.

~ Leaves, roots and flowers of the humble dandelion are fully edible. USDA National Nutrient Database analysis proves that a festive array of nutrition awaits any lawn harvester. One cup of chopped fresh dandelion greens are extremely rich in vitamins K, A and C as well as good source of vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6,  calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, fiber and omega-3 fatty acids.

~The flavonoids found in dandelions are valuable antioxidants and free radical scavengers.

References 
1 I. TROJANOVA, V. RADA, L. KOKOSKA, E. VIKOVA, “THE BIFIDOGENIC EFFECT OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE ROOT,”  FITOTERAPIA VOL 75 ISSUE 7/8 (DECEMBER 2004), 760-763.  HTTP://WWW.NCBI.NLM.NIH.GOV/PUBMED/15567259  (ACCESSED 8-29-09)
2  BENGT BJORKSTEN, EPP SEPP, KAJA JULGE, TIIA VOOR, MARIKA MIKELSAAR, “ALLERGY DEVELOPMENT AND THE INTESTINAL MICROFLORA DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE,” THE JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY VOL 108 ISSUE 4 (OCTOBER 2001), 516-520. HTTP://WWW.JACIONLINE.ORG/ARTICLE/S0091-6749(01)96140-8/ABSTRACT  (ACCESSED 8-29-09)
3 S.C.SIGSTEDT, C.J. HOOTEN, M.C. CALLEWAERT, A.R. JENKINS, A.E. ROMERA, M.J. PULLIN, A. KORNEINKO, T.K. LOWREY, S.V. SLAMBROUCK, W.F. STEELANT, “EVALUATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE ON GROWTH AND INVASION OF BREAST AND PROSTATE CANCER CELLS,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGYVOL 32, NUM 5 (MAY 2008), 1085-1090.  HTTP://WWW.SPANDIDOS-PUBLICATIONS.COM/IJO/ARTICLE.JSP?ARTICLE_ID=IJO_32_5_1085  (ACCESSED 8-30-09).
4 M. TAKASAKI, T. KONOSHIMA, H. TOKUDA, K. MASUDA, Y. ARAI, K. SHIOJIMA, H. AGETA,  “ANTI-CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY OF TARAXACUM PLANT,” BIOLOGICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN VOL 22, 6 (JUNE 1999), 602-605.  HTTP://WEB.EBSCOHOST.COM.EZPROXY.CPL.ORG/EHOST/DETAIL?VID=1&HID=108&SID=B7CE94B0-1484-4AEF-A5A8-73E1EFDDB194%40SESSIONMGR104&BDATA=JNNPDGU9ZWHVC3QTBGL2ZQ%3D%3D#DB=CMEDM&AN=10408234  (ACCESSED 9-1-09).
5 H.J. JEON, H.J. KANG, H.J. JUNG, Y.S. KANG, C.J. LIM, Y.M KIM, E.H. PARK, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE,”  JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY VOL. 115, 1 (JANUARY 2008), 82-88.  HTTP://WEB.EBSCOHOST.COM.EZPROXY.CPL.ORG/EHOST/DETAIL?VID=1&HID=108&SID=4B56DD3A-F9B3-4444-B85D-80D79EB1F3CE%40REPLICON103&BDATA=JNNPDGU9ZWHVC3QTBGL2ZQ%3D%3D#DB=CMEDM&AN=17949929  (ACCESSED 9-1-09).
6 JINJU KIM, KYUNGHEE NOH, MIKYUNG CHO, JIHYUN JANG, YOUNGSUN SONG, “ANTI-OXIDATIVE, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ATHEROGENIC EFFECTS OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) EXTRACTS IN C57BL/6 MICE FED ATHEROGENIC DIET,”  FASEB JOURNAL VOL 21, ISSUE 6 (APRIL 2007), 1122.  HTTP://WF2DNVR17.WEBFEAT.ORG/ANUIM141/URL=HTTP://WEB.EBSCOHOST.COM/EHOST/DETAIL?VID=1&HID=5&SID=A168BE9F-0A5C-41C6-B86D-2A9C3677C6F4%40SESSIONMGR4&BDATA=JNNPDGU9ZWHVC3QTBGL2ZQ%3D%3D#DB=APH&AN=25598840   (ACCESSED 9-1-09).
7 BEVIN A. CLARE, RICHARD S. CONROY, KEVIN SPELMAN, “THE DIURETIC EFFECT IN HUMAN SUBJECTS OF AN EXTRACT OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE ROLIUM OVER A SINGLE DAY,” JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE & COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE VOL 15, ISSUE 8 (AUGUST 2009), 929-934.  HTTP://WF2DNVR17.WEBFEAT.ORG/ANUIM14/URL=HTTP://WEB.EBSCOHOST.COM/EHOST/DETAIL?VID=1&HID=9&SID=A26346E7-F010-44FC-88EA-891214F7539A%40SESSIONMGR10&BDATA=JNNPDGU9ZWHVC3QTBGL2ZQ%3D%3D#DB=APH&AN=43671001     (ACCESSED 9-1-09).
8 SECIL ONAL, SUNA TIMUR, BURCU OKUTUCU, FIGEN ZIHNIOGLU, “INHIBITION OF A-GLUCOSIDASE BY AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SOME POTENT ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL HERBS,” PREPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY & BIOTECHNOLOGY VOL 35, ISSUE 1 (FEBRUARY 2005), 29-36.  HTTP://WF2DNVR17.WEBFEAT.ORG/ANUIM141/URL=HTTP://WEB.EBSCOHOST.COM/EHOST/DETAIL?VID=8&HID=104&SID=982FD009-501C-4A90-9CE3-7D5475B2ED05%40SESSIONMGR4&BDATA=JNNPDGU9ZWHVC3QTBGL2ZQ%3D%3D#DB=APH&AN=16133864    (ACCESSED 9-1-09).
9 ZHI XU, KEN-ICHI HONDA, KOJI OZAKI, TAKUYA MISUGI, TOSHIYUKI SUMI, OSAMU ISHIKO, “DANDELIOIN T-1 EXTRACT UP-REGULATES REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN MICE,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR MEDICINE VOLUME 20, 3 (2007) 287-292.  HTTP://CAT.INIST.FR/?AMODELE=AFFICHEN&CPSIDT=19007317   (ACCESSED 8-27-09).
10 USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR STANDARD REFERENCE, RELEASE 21, (2008) NDB # 11207  HTTP://WWW.NAL.USDA.GOV/FNIC/FOODCOMP/CGI-BIN/LIST_NUT_EDIT.PL  (ACCESSED 9-1-09).
 11 HU C. KITTS, “DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) FLOWER EXTRACT SUPPRESSES BOTH REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND NITRIC OXIDE AND PREVENTS LIPID OXIDATION IN VITRO,” PHYTOMEDICINE 12, 8 (AUGUST 2005), 588-597. HTTP://WWW.NCBI.NLM.NIH.GOV/PUBMED/16121519?ORDINALPOS=1&ITOOL=ENTREZSYSTEM2.PENTREZ.PUBMED.PUBMED_RESULTSPANEL.PUBMED_DISCOVERYPANEL.PUBMED_DISCOVERY_RA&LINKPOS=2&LOG$=RELATEDARTICLES&LOGDBFROM=PUBMED  (ACCESSED 9-1-09).

This article first appeared in Natural Life Magazine

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The Importance of Enunciation

I don’t normally chat about my movie preferences without being asked, but recently a neighbor walked over with our Netflix envelope in hand.  It had mistaken arrived in his mailbox. I thanked him cheerfully, saying we still get DVDs mailed because my husband and I watch a lot of foreign films that are otherwise unavailable.

That innocuous sentence instantly wrought some sort of reaction. He turned his head ever so slightly to the right, his eyes looking up as if confused. I’m pretty sure his nostrils flared as he took in a deep breath. Then the charming older gentleman said carefully, “I didn’t know those were available on Netflix.”

Something was indefinably weird about our conversation but I had no idea what it might be. I assured him, in a far more cheery voice than usual, that we’re particularly fond of films from France, Denmark, and Sweden.

There was a long pause. I’d uttered two sentences about our fondness for foreign films and he was reacting as if I’d revealed a highly personal secret.  He looked at the plain red envelope and said nothing. His discomfort must have been downright contagious because I tossed in one more sentence, hoping to find some closure to the topic so I could say goodbye and retreat. I said, “Some people really hate subtitles but it’s totally worth it.”

Understanding broke out on his face like a rash. A red rash. He said, “Oh, foreign films.”

Then my face turned red. I speak with what we in upper Ohio consider to be no accent at all and it didn’t occur to me that he’d misunderstood. But he had. He thought I’d said my husband and I watch a lot of porn films.

The moral of the story? Enunciate!

This piece is shared from my main site, where I post weekly. Here, not so much…

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Make Sugar Out of Apples

I love autumn’s beautiful bounty of apples. I’ve made apple pancakes, apple pies, and applesauce. I’ve added apples to our smoothies. I’ve eaten many a lunch consisting entirely of apple slices and almond butter. And I’m eager to store as many local organic apples as possible until next autumn.

Which brings me to apple sugar. Yes, you can turn apples into a sweet brown granular substance that can be used like sugar in SOME ways. It’s certainly better for you than sugar because it’s made out of apple flesh and skin, still as packed with fiber and nutrients as the whole apple it came from.

If you’ve got an apple glut, this process can reduce a peck basket of apples to a jar or two of apple sugar by the next day.

I have not tried to use this as a substitute for sugar in baking, and don’t suggest it. Apple sugar is, however, excellent when combined with cinnamon and added to goodies. Try topping baked goods after they’re done cooking—sprinkle over still-warm cookies, pies, pancakes, or raisin bread. You can mix it in it right before eating yogurt, granola, or a nut butter sandwich. You can add it to smoothies and kefir. Experiment!

Apple Sugar Recipe

Wash apples well and allow them to dry.

You may notice a dichotomy between the recipe heading and this picture. Mystery revealed at the end of the recipe.

Core each apple and cut into pieces, then add them in small batches to your food processor or blender.  Add only enough water to allow the machine to reduce the apples to a smooth puree (hopefully only a tablespoonful or less for each batch). The more water you use, the longer it will take to dry the puree.

Spread a very thin, even layer of apple puree on your dehydrator’s non-stick drying sheets. (The ones used for fruit leather.)

Perfect smoothing isn’t possible.

Dehydrate at 140 degrees. It may take 24 hours or longer to reach the correct stage of dryness. Your apple sheets are done when they’re very dry and crispy, not flexible like fruit leather.

Dry as the Sahara. Or the bottom of your feet, whichever is driest.

When they’re ready, allow the apple sheets to cool.

In a completely dry blender or food processor, grind pieces of your apple sheets into a powder.

Store in airtight containers. You may choose to store it with food-grade silica packs to ensure it remains dry.

Okay, this doesn’t look as powdery as earlier batches.

Confession. I just so happened to have included pictures from a recent experiment making Pear Sugar. That explains why the fruit pictured at the beginning of the recipe, next to my knife, is not an apple and why the finished sugar is a little darker than usual. Hey, what can I say? We had a glut of pears from our tree that had ripened to perfect sweetness. As you might expect, pear sugar is quite a bit grittier than apple sugar. I’m sure we’ll still use it. Happy dehydrating!

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Free Range Chickens: Safety vs Freedom

Bit of Earth Farm Chickens ranging freely over a few acres is a peaceful sight. Our chickens rush eagerly from the coop each morning to spend the day as they choose in the pasture, woods, and barn. On hot afternoons we see them in the shade, fluffing in cool hollows where they give themselves dust baths, then rest. Some like to socialize under the hay wagon. Some hang out on low branches of bushes and trees. They eat insects, greenery, sometimes a hapless toad. It’s clear many of them pal around with the same chicken each day. Some of our birds are pretty geriatric, 7 or 8  years old at least. The two youngest, Scritch and Scratch (named after the sound of Mr. McGregor’s hoe in The Tale of Peter Rabbit) hatched just this spring and their mother still keeps them close. None of the hens seem to care for the rooster’s attention but he guards them, mates with them, and clucks in a distinctive way when he’s found a tasty morsel to share.

Chickens are, like all prey animals, in danger when they roam freely. We lose a few each year to hawks. It is a loss we mourn. Such losses also don’t improve the tenuous economic venture of making enough money selling eggs to continue raising chickens. But hawks are part of the ecosystem. And when we weight the chickens’ freedom versus their safety, we come down on the side of chicken freedom.

We can see the value of this choice in their calmer behavior. We know they’re foraging for a range of nutrients because they eat a great deal less purchased feed and the egg yolks they produce are brighter orange.

But dogs are not part of this ecosystem. When a dog gets loose and attacks chickens it doesn’t kill one and eat it. It kills every chicken it can, leaving corpses behind. This is what I found the other day.

Feathers near the pond.

A trail of feathers by the barn.

More feathers close to the woods.

Ten killed and one badly injured. Feathers up the hill and on both sides of the creek show how desperately these birds tried to save themselves. Scratch is dead. So is our rooster, and many of our youngest and most productive hens.

I feel so sorry for what the birds must have gone through. And now, somewhere out there is a dog who had the time of his/her life chasing and biting, wanting nothing more than to get loose and do it again. I don’t blame the dog. I’m sure all that squawking and warm blood activates motivations far older than “sit, stay, come.” What I can’t understand is people letting their dogs run loose.

Such a dog kill has happened here two other times in the many years we’ve been raising chickens. A few years ago a neighbor’s dogs got loose, injuring some of our flock and killing others. Tragically, one of the dogs spent so much time chasing chickens in the heat that it died (we assume heat exhaustion) and was found in a dry creek not far from a pile of feathers. The worst attack was about 12 years ago, when 23 of our chickens were killed by a single dog. We’ve never been reimbursed for these losses.

This time we have no idea whose dog is responsible. Some of my neighbors insist this was the work of coyotes, but coyotes don’t kill so many animals and then not eat their kill. The attack happened, best we can estimate, in early afternoon. We can’t see the chicken coop or barn from the house, often can’t hear what’s going on out back either. Even if we were home we could have missed the whole thing.

So for now our chickens are penned up.

Their accommodations qualify as free range by all industry standards. They have a roomy coop, an anteroom with a roof and partially covered sides, plus a 21′ by 20′ outdoor enclosure topped by avian netting. Plenty of room for three dozen chickens. Still, every morning they cluster by the gate, remembering all that lies just beyond. They can be distracted by a pail of kitchen scraps but it’s not remotely the same as foraging on their own. My hand hovers on the latch each time. I want to swing the gate open, choose freedom over safety, but I’m not ready yet.

What choice would you make— freedom or safety?

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Grape-Flavored Endeavor

Talk about a long-term project.

Last August, construction on our 30 x 72 high tunnel began.

A team of Amish workers put it up in two days.

As soon as they were done we put in a cover crop of winter rye.

Early this spring we tilled rows and put in locally milled locust posts, with high tensile wire for supports.

Next, hand-digging 54 holes.

Finally we put in the plants. Initially they looked like sticks but within two weeks they were growing rapidly.

Now to tend, watch. and wait. It’ll be two years or more until we’ve got a harvest large enough to sell. We’re looking forward to tasting that first grape…

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Sure Feels Like Summer

 

I know the solstice hasn’t yet arrived but I’m convinced it’s summer. Today’s thermometer reads 92 degrees. The humidity feels a bit like standing above a boiling pot of soup. And I’m a toasted itch grump full of poison ivy. I’m not a fan of summer’s heat but have to admit, things are lovely around here.

 

Fragrant elderflowers are in bloom — some of them on bushes we might actually be able to reach, out there in brambles and underbrush, when it’s time to pick the berries.

Water lilies are again clogging up the pond, both white

and pink. Many mornings a great blue heron stands pondside looking for breakfast, but I’m not sure the pickings are great with all these lilies in the way. (I keep trying to give lilies away. If you want a few or 100, come on over.)

Trees seem to be heavy with fruit this year. Our pear tree is loaded and we’re already eating cherries.

We always assumed this was a crab apple tree but my daughter suggested it might be a heritage cider apple tree. Commonly used to make hard cider, many old varieties were lost during Prohibition and after, when hard cider fell out of favor.

A clutch of eggs hatched a few weeks ago. These nearly grown chicks are still a little wary of leaving the coop without mom.

We’ve had such massive rain this spring that our new hoop house wasn’t dry enough for planting until this week. Today is the day that grapevines are being planted!

After years of cattle and now two years without animals on our pasture, new fencing is going up. Already I can picture sheep here. And maybe a miniature donkey or two. Every new post put in gives me hope.

I hope too that my son’s truck will get fixed before it becomes part of the forest.

Best of all is this outdoor girl. She speaks the secret language of stones, sticks, and puddles. She’s teaching me to love everything summer has to offer.

 

 

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Indoor Seed Starting Set-Up Extraordinaire

I save many of our vegetable seeds year to year, but give in to flower seed splurges.

Every year our indoor seed starting ritual seems to get just a little more elaborate. Years ago we planted a few seeds in egg cartons. Then we planted trays of seeds in repurposed tp tubes. Then we bought grow lights and warming mats. And this spring my husband built me a substantial seed starting set-up that will last for many decades.

It measures four-and-a-half feet tall, four feet wide, and nearly nine feet long. The whole contraption comes apart for easy storage.

The “roof” can be raised to move the grow lights up as plants get taller and the sides of the roof can be held open with hooks suspended from the ceiling to tend seedlings.

For a few weeks each spring, our basement eco-system is a fertile place indeed.

 

Cautionary reminder: I heard from many readers who had major difficulty or total failure starting seeds using NK products and Jiffy products including “peat” pots, soil mix, and dehydrated soil disks. (Jiffy has been bought out by NK.) Here’s more on this.

 

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